The Effect of the NSPIxD Model’s Integration on Knowledge, Perceived Awareness, and Perceived Motivation Through Mobile Learning

The Effect of the NSPIxD Model’s Integration on Knowledge, Perceived Awareness, and Perceived Motivation Through Mobile Learning


  • Arifah Fasha Rosmani UiTM Pulau Pinang Branch, Permatang Pauh Campus, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  • Ariffin Abdul Mutalib School of Multimedia Technology and Communication, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia
  • Siti Mahfuzah Sarif School of Multimedia Technology and Communication, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia



Knowledge, Mobile Learning, Perceived Awareness, Perceived Motivation


Tablets, smartphones, and wearable devices can be beneficial in promoting academic learning and have evolved into the primary teaching method in formal and informal education. Concurrently, multimedia components can boost user engagement and interest in mobile applications and increase users' usage and attention to them. Celebrating the trend, a study on Islamic mobile applications integrated with the Signaling principle and Nielsen's Design Guideline investigates the knowledge and perceived awareness of the target users' context and perceived motivation in using the learning material. This research is inspired to intensify the Islamic mobile app user's motivation to use the app, uplift their interest, and increase their awareness and knowledge of Islamic content, particularly in Asmaul Husna. Islamic mobile apps are suggested to employ the Signaling principle since these principles guide attention, organization, knowledge integration, and reduce extraneous load. The research is divided into three stages comprised of theoretical study, development, and evaluation. The study generally finds that students' knowledge and perceived awareness of Asmaul Husna was increased by Asmaul Husna Mobile Application (AHMA) for both presentation modes which are AHMA-0 (not integrated with NSPIxD Model) and AHMA-NSPIxD (integrated with NSPIxD model). It demonstrates AHMA's efficacy as an alternative and creative approach to expanding the knowledge and perceived awareness of Asmaul Husna among students and their perceived motivation for the learning materials. The study sample is restricted to undergraduate students between 18 and 24. Therefore, this study suggests that future studies should also be extended to other learners' levels and a broader spectrum.


Download data is not yet available.


Ab Rahman, M. A. (2016). Manifestasi dan Penghayatan Asmaul Husna dalam Siri Pengkarya dan Karya Sastera. International Seminar on Generating Knowledge Through Research, 231–242.

Abdul Muhsin Al-Badr, S. A. R. (2020). Ensiklopedia Asma’ul Husna. Pustaka Imam Asy-Syafi’i.

Abdul Wahab, N. (2016). The effects of personalized multimedia app on knowledge, perceived awareness and perceived motivation of cyber-bullying among adolescents [Doctoral Dissertation, Universiti Sains Malaysia].

Al-Qurtubi, I. S. (2017). The Magnificence of Asmaul Husna. Pustaka Ibnu Kathir.

Al‐Rahmi, A. M., Al‐Rahmi, W. M., Alturki, U., Aldraiweesh, A., Almutairy, S., & Al‐adwan, A. S. (2021). Exploring the Factors Affecting Mobile Learning for Sustainability in Higher Education. Sustainability, 13(14), 1–22.

Arp, R. (2007). Consciousness and Awareness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 14(3), 101–106.

Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Vol. 1). McKay.

Brown, A. H., & Green, T. D. (2016). The Essentials of Instructional Design: Connecting Fundamental Principles with Process and Practice. Routledge.

Chee, K. N., Ibrahim, N. H., Yahaya, N., Surif, J., Rosli, M. S., & Zakaria, M. A. Z. M. (2017). A Review of Literature in Mobile Learning: A New Paradigm in Teaching and Learning Pedagogy for Now and Then. Advanced Science Letters, 23(8), 7416–7419.

Cheng, Z., & Sabran, K. (2023). A Systematic Literature Review of Mobile Applications to Assist People with Mild to Moderate Dementia in Their Daily Lives. Malaysian Journal of Computing, 8(1), 1332–1348.

Chua, Y. P. (2012). Mastering Research Methods. McGraw-Hill Education.

Cohen, R. J., & Swerdlik, M. E. (2009). An Introduction to Tests and Measurement (7th ed.). McGraw Hill.

Dawson, C. (2002). Practical Research Methods: A User-Friendly Guide to Mastering Research. How to Books Ltd.

Department of Statistics Malaysia. (2020). ICT Use and Access by Individuals and Households Survey Report 2019.

Dollah, H., Md. Ghalib, M. F., Sahrir, M. S., Hassan, R., Zakaria, A. W., & Omar, Z. (2017). Prototype Development of Mobile App for Trilingual Islamic Banking and Finance Glossary of Terms via iOS and Android Based Devices. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (IJIM), 11(3), 145–161.

Dourish, P., & Bellotti, V. (1992). Awareness and coordination in shared workspaces: 1992 ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work - CSCW '92, 107–114.

Fook, C. Y., Abdul Aziz, N., Syed Mustafa, S. M., & Cheong, T. H. (2021). Exploring the Relationship Between Mobile Addiction, Interpersonal Relationships, and Academic Behavior among Young Adults in Tertiary Institutions. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 2(2), 263–299.

Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. (2012). Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications. Pearson.

Gillaspy, E., & Vasilica, C. (2021). Developing the Digital Self-Determined Learner through Heutagogical Design. Higher Education Pedagogies, 6(1), 135–155.

Heale, R., & Twycross, A. (2015). Validity and Reliability in Quantitative Studies. Evidence-Based Nursing, 18(3), 66–67.

Keller, J. M. (1987). Development and Use of the ARCS Model of Motivational Design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3), 2–10.

Keller, J. M. (2010). Motivational Design for Learning and Performance. Springer US.

Lai, E. R. (2011). Motivation: A Literature Review Research. Pearson.

Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission. (2017). Handphone Users Survey 2017.

Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission. (2018). Handphone Users Survey 2018.

Mautone, P. D., & Mayer, R. E. (2001). Signaling as a cognitive guide in multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 377–389.

Mayer, R. E. (2014). Incorporating Motivation into Multimedia Learning. Learning and Instruction, 29(2014), 171–173.

Mayer, R. E. (2017). Using Multimedia for E-Learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33(5), 403–423.

Mayer, R. E. (2020). Where Is the Learning in Mobile Technologies for Learning? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60(December 2019), 1–3.

Mayer, R. E., & Estrella, G. (2014). Benefits Of Emotional Design in Multimedia Instruction. Learning and Instruction, 33, 12–18.

Melhem, T. (2014). The effect of the modified cort programme in enhancing critical thinking and improving motivation to learn among students with learning difficulties in mathematics [Doctoral Dissertation, Universiti Sains Malaysia].

Menon, C. S. (2016). Effects of presentation modes on the learning of sign language among hearing impaired students with different cognitive styles [Doctoral Dissertation, Universiti Sains Malaysia].

Ministry of Higher Education. (2018). Higher Education 4.0: Knowledge, Industry, Humanity: Mandate MOHE 2018.

Ng, B. K., Suaib, N. M., Sihes, A. J., Ali, A., & Shah, Z. A. (2020). Educational Mobile Game for Learning English Words. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 979(1).

Nielsen, J. V., & Arvidsen, J. (2021). Left To Their Own Devices? A Mixed Methods Study Exploring the Impacts of Smartphone Use on Children's Outdoor Experiences. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(6), 1–15.

Nik Mat, N. A. A. (2016). Asmaul Husna: The Beautiful Names of Allah. Kemilau Publika.

Osman, A. (2015). Effects of segmenting principle in multimedia application in knowledge, perceived self-efficacy beliefs and motivation in dyslexia literacy intervention among special education pre-service teachers [Doctoral Dissertation, Universiti Sains Malaysia].

Othman, A. (2015). The effects of conversational versus formal narrative styles of persuasive multimedia on children's knowledge, awareness and motivation of child sexual abuse [Doctoral Dissertation, Universiti Sains Malaysia].

Randolph, J. J. (2008). Multidisciplinary Methods in Educational Technology Research and Development. HAMK University of Applied Sciences.

Ranganathan, H., Singh, D. K. A., Kumar, S., Sharma, S., Chua, S. K., Ahmad, N. B., & Harikrishnan, K. (2021). Readiness towards Online Learning among Physiotherapy Undergraduates. BMC Medical Education, 21(1), 1–8.

Reinhardt, W., Mletzko, C., Sloep, P. B., & Drachsler, H. (2012). Understanding The Meaning of Awareness in Research Networks. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 931, 13–29.

Richter, J., Scheiter, K., & Eitel, A. (2016). Signaling Text-Picture Relations in Multimedia Learning: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Educational Research Review, 17, 19–36.

Roblyer, M. D. (2006). Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Pearson Education Inc.

Rosmani, A. F., Ahmad, H., Mazlan, U. H., Zainuddin, N. A., & Ibrahim, A. (2014). I-Wirid: Construction of Digital Wirid Via a Mobile Platform. I4CT 2014 - 1st International Conference on Computer, Communications, and Control Technology, I4ct, 348–352.

Rosmani, A. F., Abdul Mutalib, A., & Sarif, S. M. (2022). Conveying Asmaul Husna’s Knowledge Via Mobile App for Undergrads: Hybridizing Signaling Principle and Nielsen’s Design Guidelines. Journal of Information System and Technology Management, 7(29), 166–177.

Rosmani, A. F., Abdul Mutalib, A., & Sarif, S. M. (2021). Asmaul Husna Mobile Application (AHMA): Foundation of the Prototype Design and Development. Journal of Computing Research and Innovation (JCRINN), 6(2), 142–153.

Selamat, A., Alias, R. A., Hikmi, S. N., Puteh, M., & Tapsir, S. H. (2017). Higher Education 4.0: Current Status and Readiness in Meeting the Fourth Industrial Revolution Challenges the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

Shneiderman, B., Plaisant, C., Cohen, M., & Jacobs, S. (2010). Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer (5th ed.). Addison Wesley.

Wan Mohd, W. M. (2015). Penyucian Hati dengan 99 Asmaul Husna. SMK Publications & Distributors.




How to Cite

Rosmani, A. F., Abdul Mutalib, A., & Sarif, S. M. (2024). The Effect of the NSPIxD Model’s Integration on Knowledge, Perceived Awareness, and Perceived Motivation Through Mobile Learning. Journal of Computing Research and Innovation, 9(1), 1–15.



General Computing